The First Conditional

We use the first conditional to talk about real or possible future situations, to make predictions, offers, suggestions, etc. If you eat that, you will be sick.If she needs a car, she can borrow mine.I'll stay at home if it rains. The structure of the first conditional is:If/when + present simple - will + infinitive. … Continue reading The First Conditional

Ways to Use Can and Could

'Can' and 'could' are modal verbs used in a few different ways.

Will and Would

In case you have any doubts or insecurities about using 'will' and 'would', then this post is for you.

Zero Conditional

Conditional sentences consist of two or more clauses. One of the clauses is the "if clause" and the other is the "main clause". In the real or zero conditional, both if clause and the main clause are usually in the Present Simple Tense.

How to Use “So” and “Such” Correctly

In today’s post, I will try to explain the difference between “so” and “such”. “So” and “such” both mean “very”. They are used to strengthen the meaning of adjectives.

Causative verbs: Let, Make, Have, Get, Help

The verbs let, make, have, get and help are called 'causative' verbs because they cause something to happen. As such, these verbs are used in a causative sentence structure.

When and how to use “used to”

The structure used to + infinitive is used to talk about past habits, jobs, or hobbies we no longer practice or which we replaced with the new ones I used to play a lot of football when I was younger; now I go to the gym. They used to be good friends, but now they … Continue reading When and how to use “used to”

Nouns Which are Only Plural

There are three groups of nouns that we use only in the plural. We use them with plural verbs and plural pronouns: Your glasses are dirty. Take a tissue to wipe them. These groups of nouns are: 1) Nouns related to items consisting of two parts (glasses, scissors, jeans, trousers…) My new trousers are so … Continue reading Nouns Which are Only Plural

Nouns which are only singular

Most nouns in English have both singular and plural forms. However, there are some nouns that are only used in the singular form.

WHO or WHOM?

Who and whom are interrogative pronouns. Many people live their lives without using WHOM at all, thinking that whom should be used in formal situations only. If you want to speak English properly, then you need to know about usage of both WHO and WHOM. The rule is: WHO is used in the subject position … Continue reading WHO or WHOM?

Reciprocal Pronouns: Each Other & One Another

We use reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more people are acting on each other. Rhina and Sam saw each other yesterday. The boys helped one another do their homework. They talk to each other in French. Both each other and one another refer to either persons or things. They connected … Continue reading Reciprocal Pronouns: Each Other & One Another

Prepositions of Place

Prepositions of place refer to a location of something. They answer the question ‘where’. Take a look at these prepositions of place: Above -- over or higher than There was a mirror above his head. Below -- in a lower level The temperature dropped to 10 degrees below zero last night. Beside -- near, at … Continue reading Prepositions of Place

Reflexive Pronouns

In today's lesson, we will be talking about reflexive pronouns. The reflexive pronouns are: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Across vs Over vs Through

ACROSS  and OVER are both prepositions and adverbs. They are in most cases interchangeable. Look at these sentences: They had to go across the river to get to their house. We walked over the bridge in the misty morning. However, when the meaning is ‘from side to side’, ACROSS is preferred: I ran across the … Continue reading Across vs Over vs Through

When and how to use HAVE/HAS BEEN

  We normally use HAVE/HAS BEEN in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. HAS BEEN is used if the subject is third person singular (he/she/it) and HAVE BEEN is used for all other persons (I/you/we/they). The Present Perfect Continuous refers to an action that started in the past and is still continuing in the present. Examples: … Continue reading When and how to use HAVE/HAS BEEN

Adverbs of Time

LATER Adverbs of time later is usually placed at the end or beginning of a sentence. I will call you later. Later, we went to the zoo. It can also be placed after the main verb and usually has a function of comparative. Our mail arrived later than usual. YET YET is primarily used in negative … Continue reading Adverbs of Time

Any Longer vs Any More vs No Longer

Any longer and any more (or anymore) are synonyms. Unlike any longer and any more, no longer is used in positive sentences because it makes the sentence negative.

Also, as well or too?

Also, as well and too are adverbs that have a similar meaning but they do not go in the same position in a sentence.

Have and Have Got

Have got and have mean the same but have got is more informal. Look at these sentences: I’ve got some money in my wallet.    or    I have some money in my wallet. (more formal) Tom hasn’t got a dog     or    Tom doesn’t have a dog. (more formal) We normally use have … Continue reading Have and Have Got

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Here is an overview of personal and impersonal passive constructions in English

Punctuation

The word punctuation comes from a Latin word meaning “inserting pauses in writing.” Here are an overview and usage guide for the punctuation in English

The Phrase “Another One”

We use the phrase “another one” to mention one more thing of the same kind. I really liked the film. Let’s watch another one. I passed the test and I’ll never have to pass another one because I graduated. We can use the phrase “another one” for a different thing of the same kind. -I … Continue reading The Phrase “Another One”

Adjectives Ending in “-less”

We can add the suffix –less (meaning without) to some nouns and create a new adjective.

Adverbs – Formation and Meaning

Analyse the sentence: I could hardly stand. Is the word hardly an adjective or an adverb? How is it formed? Remember: Adverbs are normally formed by adding -ly to the corresponding adjective; e.g. easy - easily, quiet - quietly, successful - successfully A few adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives: e.g. fast, … Continue reading Adverbs – Formation and Meaning

One & Ones

We use ‘one’ as a pronoun meaning ‘anyone’ to refer to people in general when we want to be formal. In everyday speech we use ‘you’ in an informal way to mean ‘anyone'. Ex: I like to go to picnic in this area, although there are no shops here and one has to take one’s … Continue reading One & Ones

Had Better

“Had better” is normally used with infinitive without to to give advice about specific situations or make recommendations. We use the same form for present, past or future without changing the ‘had’ into ‘have’. The short form is 'd better. Ex: You’d better go to school now.        We’d better tell her all about it. … Continue reading Had Better

Words and Phrases Followed by Infinitive

I want to buy a bicycle. I agree to pay the bill. He refused to come with us. We are lucky to find such a good apartment. Joanna tends to be a bit shy. Tom promised to be back at 8 o’clock. I am glad to meet you. I decided to study chemistry. He deserves … Continue reading Words and Phrases Followed by Infinitive

Words and Phrases Followed by Gerund

I despise waking up early. I succeeded in finishing my project on time. Jane has been avoiding seeing Michael ever since they had an argument. The kids admitted stealing the statue from the park. I enjoy eating a hearty breakfast. It’s no use looking for your pencil. Here, take mine. I’m busy scheduling. He apologized … Continue reading Words and Phrases Followed by Gerund

Question Tags

Question tags are very common in spoken English. We use them to keep conversation going by involving listeners and inviting them to participate. The most common patterns are: positive sentence – negative tag, or negative sentence – positive tag. You’re Jenny, aren’t you? It isn’t a very nice day, is it? We repeat the auxiliary … Continue reading Question Tags

Shall & Will

Both 'Shall' and 'Will' are modal verbs used to express future tense. If you've  ever had any doubts whether to use shall or will in the Simple Future Tense, WILL is used for all persons in both singular and plural. We will begin to work in September. How long do you think this heat will … Continue reading Shall & Will

Adjectives with Nouns and Verbs

Adjectives give more information about nouns. Their form does not change for singular and plural nouns or for male and female: A young girl and two young boys came to the party. Adjectives usually come before a noun:  a white lamb   a lamb white We can put two or more adjectives before a noun. We … Continue reading Adjectives with Nouns and Verbs

Reported Questions

Word order in reported questions When we report a question, we change the word order of the question - it becomes the same word order as a statement. Note: We do not use auxiliary do, does or did in reported questions: Wrong:  He asked what time did the flight leave Paris.    Right: He asked … Continue reading Reported Questions

Relative Clauses with WHO, WHICH and THAT

We can use relative clauses to make two sentences into one sentence.   This is my friend. He lives in New York There are three books. They form the ‘Lord of the Rings’ series I’ve got a camera It takes great photos.   This is my friend who lives in New York. There are three … Continue reading Relative Clauses with WHO, WHICH and THAT

Modal Verbs of Ability

Can / Be able to (ability in the present/future) 'Can' is more usual and less formal than 'be able to' when talking about the present or future. Ann can type fast. I can pay you next week. (usual) I will be able to pay you next week. (less usual) Was able to (= managed to … Continue reading Modal Verbs of Ability

Order of Adjectives

  We sometimes put more than one adjective before a noun. Their order is as follows: Number or quantity (one, two…, a few, many…) Opinion or quality (nice, ugly, beautiful) Size (large, small, short) Shape (round, square) Age (two-year-old, young) Color (yellow, brownish) Origin (Italian, Medieval) Material (wooden, glass) Purpose (cooking, driving) We normally separate … Continue reading Order of Adjectives

I wish, if only, it’s time

Wish and if only + past simple/would We use wish + past simple to talk about present situations when we are unhappy with the situation: I wish we were still on holiday. (We aren’t on holiday now.) We wish we didn’t live so far away. (We live too far away to see our friends.) I … Continue reading I wish, if only, it’s time

Much, many, a lot of (lots of)

We use much, many and a lot of to talk about a large amount; we don’t know the exact amount. ·         We usually use much and many in negative sentences and questions: + UNCOUNTABLE  NOUN    We haven’t got much water. + COUNTABLE  NOUN          There aren’t many cans of cola. ·         We use a lot of … Continue reading Much, many, a lot of (lots of)