We use the first conditional to talk about real or possible future situations, to make predictions, offers, suggestions, etc. If you eat that, you will be sick.If she needs a car, she can borrow mine.I'll stay at home if it rains. The structure of the first conditional is:If/when + present simple - will + infinitive. … Continue reading The First Conditional
Sometimes, it can be pretty hard to tell whether something is "made from" or "made of" or even "made out from". Let's look at the explanation
It is not always clear whether to say "arrive in" or "arrive at" although it is not too complicated. Here is the explanation
'Can' and 'could' are modal verbs used in a few different ways.
In case you have any doubts or insecurities about using 'will' and 'would', then this post is for you.
Here are some commonly used prepositions of place with example sentences: IN – The cat is in the cradle. INSIDE – There is some water inside the jug. IN FRONT OF – There is a beautiful garden in front of our house. BEHIND - There was a car behind them. ON – There is a … Continue reading Prepositions of Place
With IN, we use the following time expressions: parts of the day – in the morning, in the afternoon, in the eveningmonths - in February, in Augustseasons – in spring, in summer, in autumn, in winteryears – in 2017, in the 1990s With ON, we use the following time expressions: days of the week – … Continue reading Prepositions of TIME – IN, ON, AT
Indefinite pronouns are: anyone, anything, anybody, anywhere, someone, something, somebody, somewhere, no one, nothing, nobody, nowhere. Indefinite pronouns do not refer to any specific person, thing, place or amount. We normally use –one, -body, -thing, -where to refer to people, things or places in a general way: Anyone could steal your purse. Someone is knocking … Continue reading Indefinite Pronouns
As…as We use as + adjective + as to make comparisons between the things which are equal: Sarah is as pretty as her sister. You have to pack it as carefully as you can. It’s fragile. We worked as hard as we could. Not as … as We use not as … as to make … Continue reading Comparison of Adjectives with as … as, not as … as, etc.
Conditional sentences consist of two or more clauses. One of the clauses is the "if clause" and the other is the "main clause". In the real or zero conditional, both if clause and the main clause are usually in the Present Simple Tense.
Most commonly used relative pronouns are who, which, that, whose, when and where. We normally use who for people and some pet animals and which for things. We can use that instead of who or which. The woman who (that) gave me the letter. She gave me the letter which (that) was red. This is the computer which (that) costs a lot of money. Is this the person … Continue reading Relative Pronouns
In today’s post, I will try to explain the difference between “so” and “such”. “So” and “such” both mean “very”. They are used to strengthen the meaning of adjectives.
An adverb is a word that gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even an entire sentence. It can be one word or an adverbial phrase. But, how much do you know about order of adverbs in a sentence?
English learners sometimes get confused about the usage of these two verbs because it's not always easy to decide which one to use. Therefore, we need to be very careful when we use them. We can say that take means to hold or pick something, while get has meanings: obtain, reach, arrive. Besides, both verbs … Continue reading GET vs TAKE
There is a lot of confusion about the prepositions AT, IN, ON related to place. The prepositions IN, ON, AT can be used to locate something. Here are some explanations altogether with example sentences. AT AT is used to describe the position of something at a particular place. Examples: at the bus (railway) station, airport … Continue reading Prepositions of Place – AT, IN, ON
FAR is usually used in questions and negative sentences: London isn’t far from Coventry. Is your job far from your house? However, in affirmative sentences people usually say “a long way”: Los Angeles is a long way from New York. FAR is used in affirmative sentences only when it appears in phrases such as: too … Continue reading Usage of the word FAR
The suffix -able can be added to verbs to form adjectives that mean 'capable of' or 'suitable for'. Here are some examples of the adjectives with the suffix -able: CAPABLE - having the ability to do something. Ex: I am capable of typing very fast. AFFORDABLE - cheap enough. Ex: These holiday arrangements are affordable. … Continue reading Adjectives with the suffix -ABLE
The verbs let, make, have, get and help are called 'causative' verbs because they cause something to happen. As such, these verbs are used in a causative sentence structure.
The structure used to + infinitive is used to talk about past habits, jobs, or hobbies we no longer practice or which we replaced with the new ones I used to play a lot of football when I was younger; now I go to the gym. They used to be good friends, but now they … Continue reading When and how to use “used to”
There are three groups of nouns that we use only in the plural. We use them with plural verbs and plural pronouns: Your glasses are dirty. Take a tissue to wipe them. These groups of nouns are: 1) Nouns related to items consisting of two parts (glasses, scissors, jeans, trousers…) My new trousers are so … Continue reading Nouns Which are Only Plural
Most nouns in English have both singular and plural forms. However, there are some nouns that are only used in the singular form.
Who and whom are interrogative pronouns. Many people live their lives without using WHOM at all, thinking that whom should be used in formal situations only. If you want to speak English properly, then you need to know about usage of both WHO and WHOM. The rule is: WHO is used in the subject position … Continue reading WHO or WHOM?
We use reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more people are acting on each other. Rhina and Sam saw each other yesterday. The boys helped one another do their homework. They talk to each other in French. Both each other and one another refer to either persons or things. They connected … Continue reading Reciprocal Pronouns: Each Other & One Another
Prepositions of place refer to a location of something. They answer the question ‘where’. Take a look at these prepositions of place: Above -- over or higher than There was a mirror above his head. Below -- in a lower level The temperature dropped to 10 degrees below zero last night. Beside -- near, at … Continue reading Prepositions of Place
In today's lesson, we will be talking about reflexive pronouns. The reflexive pronouns are: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
ACROSS and OVER are both prepositions and adverbs. They are in most cases interchangeable. Look at these sentences: They had to go across the river to get to their house. We walked over the bridge in the misty morning. However, when the meaning is ‘from side to side’, ACROSS is preferred: I ran across the … Continue reading Across vs Over vs Through
The 'Oxford comma' or the 'serial comma' is an optional comma before the word 'and' or ’or’ in a list: They have a dog, a cat, and a hamster. Do you have this shirt in black, white, or grey colour? The reason it is called the Oxford comma is because it was primarily used … Continue reading The Oxford Comma: yes or no?
We sometimes use verbs ending in –ed and –ing as adjectives: I like painted furniture. Do you like smoked meat? The police are looking for a missing person. Some people say Leonardo da Vinci invented first flying machine. Many –ed and –ing adjectives describe feelings, but we use them in different ways. We use: -ed adjectives to describe how we feel: I’m confused. The students are interested. -ing adjectives to describe the thing that causes … Continue reading -ED and -ING Forms of Adjectives
The Definite Article THE is the most frequently used word in English. It is the same for all genders in singular or plural. Definite article is used to refer to a particular phenomenon or a thing. It can be something already mentioned or something specified. We use THE: with the words beach, cinema, theatre, world, weekend… (We’re going to the beach … Continue reading The Definite Article THE
We normally use HAVE/HAS BEEN in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. HAS BEEN is used if the subject is third person singular (he/she/it) and HAVE BEEN is used for all other persons (I/you/we/they). The Present Perfect Continuous refers to an action that started in the past and is still continuing in the present. Examples: … Continue reading When and how to use HAVE/HAS BEEN
LATER Adverbs of time later is usually placed at the end or beginning of a sentence. I will call you later. Later, we went to the zoo. It can also be placed after the main verb and usually has a function of comparative. Our mail arrived later than usual. YET YET is primarily used in negative … Continue reading Adverbs of Time
Also, as well and too are adverbs that have a similar meaning but they do not go in the same position in a sentence.
Have got and have mean the same but have got is more informal. Look at these sentences: I’ve got some money in my wallet. or I have some money in my wallet. (more formal) Tom hasn’t got a dog or Tom doesn’t have a dog. (more formal) We normally use have … Continue reading Have and Have Got
Here is an overview of personal and impersonal passive constructions in English
The word punctuation comes from a Latin word meaning “inserting pauses in writing.” Here are an overview and usage guide for the punctuation in English
We use the phrase “another one” to mention one more thing of the same kind. I really liked the film. Let’s watch another one. I passed the test and I’ll never have to pass another one because I graduated. We can use the phrase “another one” for a different thing of the same kind. -I … Continue reading The Phrase “Another One”
We can add the suffix –less (meaning without) to some nouns and create a new adjective.
Analyse the sentence: I could hardly stand. Is the word hardly an adjective or an adverb? How is it formed? Remember: Adverbs are normally formed by adding -ly to the corresponding adjective; e.g. easy - easily, quiet - quietly, successful - successfully A few adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives: e.g. fast, … Continue reading Adverbs – Formation and Meaning
We use ‘one’ as a pronoun meaning ‘anyone’ to refer to people in general when we want to be formal. In everyday speech we use ‘you’ in an informal way to mean ‘anyone'. Ex: I like to go to picnic in this area, although there are no shops here and one has to take one’s … Continue reading One & Ones
“Had better” is normally used with infinitive without to to give advice about specific situations or make recommendations. We use the same form for present, past or future without changing the ‘had’ into ‘have’. The short form is 'd better. Ex: You’d better go to school now. We’d better tell her all about it. … Continue reading Had Better
I want to buy a bicycle. I agree to pay the bill. He refused to come with us. We are lucky to find such a good apartment. Joanna tends to be a bit shy. Tom promised to be back at 8 o’clock. I am glad to meet you. I decided to study chemistry. He deserves … Continue reading Words and Phrases Followed by Infinitive
I despise waking up early. I succeeded in finishing my project on time. Jane has been avoiding seeing Michael ever since they had an argument. The kids admitted stealing the statue from the park. I enjoy eating a hearty breakfast. It’s no use looking for your pencil. Here, take mine. I’m busy scheduling. He apologized … Continue reading Words and Phrases Followed by Gerund
There are two forms of indifinite article in English - 'a' and 'an'. We use 'a' when the word following the article starts wih a consonant sound (a street, a house, a desk), but we normally use 'an' when the word following the article starts with a vowel sound (an umbrella, an apple, an hour). … Continue reading The Indefinite Article A (An)
Question tags are very common in spoken English. We use them to keep conversation going by involving listeners and inviting them to participate. The most common patterns are: positive sentence – negative tag, or negative sentence – positive tag. You’re Jenny, aren’t you? It isn’t a very nice day, is it? We repeat the auxiliary … Continue reading Question Tags
Both 'Shall' and 'Will' are modal verbs used to express future tense. If you've ever had any doubts whether to use shall or will in the Simple Future Tense, WILL is used for all persons in both singular and plural. We will begin to work in September. How long do you think this heat will … Continue reading Shall & Will
Adjectives give more information about nouns. Their form does not change for singular and plural nouns or for male and female: A young girl and two young boys came to the party. Adjectives usually come before a noun: a white lamb a lamb white We can put two or more adjectives before a noun. We … Continue reading Adjectives with Nouns and Verbs
Word order in reported questions When we report a question, we change the word order of the question - it becomes the same word order as a statement. Note: We do not use auxiliary do, does or did in reported questions: Wrong: He asked what time did the flight leave Paris. Right: He asked … Continue reading Reported Questions
We can use relative clauses to make two sentences into one sentence. This is my friend. He lives in New York There are three books. They form the ‘Lord of the Rings’ series I’ve got a camera It takes great photos. This is my friend who lives in New York. There are three … Continue reading Relative Clauses with WHO, WHICH and THAT
Can / Be able to (ability in the present/future) 'Can' is more usual and less formal than 'be able to' when talking about the present or future. Ann can type fast. I can pay you next week. (usual) I will be able to pay you next week. (less usual) Was able to (= managed to … Continue reading Modal Verbs of Ability
We sometimes put more than one adjective before a noun. Their order is as follows: Number or quantity (one, two…, a few, many…) Opinion or quality (nice, ugly, beautiful) Size (large, small, short) Shape (round, square) Age (two-year-old, young) Color (yellow, brownish) Origin (Italian, Medieval) Material (wooden, glass) Purpose (cooking, driving) We normally separate … Continue reading Order of Adjectives
Wish and if only + past simple/would We use wish + past simple to talk about present situations when we are unhappy with the situation: I wish we were still on holiday. (We aren’t on holiday now.) We wish we didn’t live so far away. (We live too far away to see our friends.) I … Continue reading I wish, if only, it’s time
We sometimes use verbs ending in –ed and –ing as adjectives: I like painted furniture. Do you like smoked meat? The police are looking for a missing person. Some people say Leonardo da Vinci invented first flying machine. Many –ed and –ing adjectives describe feelings, but we use them in different ways. We use: -ed … Continue reading -ED and -ING forms of adjectives
We use much, many and a lot of to talk about a large amount; we don’t know the exact amount. · We usually use much and many in negative sentences and questions: + UNCOUNTABLE NOUN We haven’t got much water. + COUNTABLE NOUN There aren’t many cans of cola. · We use a lot of … Continue reading Much, many, a lot of (lots of)